All rise!

Hello duelists, and welcome back to Court of Appeals! Every two weeks I'll answer your questions about card interactions, game mechanics and tournament policy submitted to I get quite a few submissions, and I most likely can't get to them all. To improve your chances of your e-mail making it to the column, please follow these ground rules...

-I will not answer new questions in the article Comments. If you have a related follow-up question to a question I answer here, you can ask it in the Comments and I will answer it in a reply.

-Please ask only one question per e-mail. Grammar and clarity helps, too.

-All answers I give are unofficial unless backed up by an official source.

-I'll be using official game terms whenever possible. If I use jargon (even jargon that is perceived to be universally accepted), I'll note that it's jargon.

-I'll note sources whenever possible.

-I'll always use the official card database as my card text reference. You can find the official card database here:

-I will not answer any questions about cards not released in the TCG.

Please be seated.

James writes…

If I used Machine Duplication on Speedroid Red-Eyed Dice, would Machine Duplication cause Red-Eyed Dice to miss timing on its Level modifying effect?

Hello James!

As long as Speedroid Red-Eyed Dice's Summon was the last thing to happen, you can activate the effect. Since Machine Duplication will usually be chain link 1, you can use Red-Eyed Dice's effect afterwards.

Aaron writes…

Hello Judge Joe,

So I have an interesting question for you! I'm playing D/D/D's and I enter my Standby Phase with 900 Life Points remaining. I take the 1000 LP required due to Dark Contract with the Gate, then activate D/D/D Rebel King Leonidas effect in response. My opponent activates Yosenjus' Secret Move in order to negate Leonidas and make me take the 1000.

I then activate Errors' rel=" Contract with Errors">Dark Contract with Errors to negate his Secret Move. So, a couple of questions. Can I even do any of this since I technically took the 1000 Life Point damage and fell below 0? If I can activate Leonidas' effect then would Leonidas be considered on the field in order to meet Dark Contract's "control a D/D monster" requirement, or would Secret Move negate it?

Hello Aaron!

The game ends when your Life Points hit zero, which would've happened when Dark Contract with the Gate resolved its Standby Phase effect. D/D/D Rebel King Leonidas never activated because the game was over by that point.

But since I'm here, assuming you had more than 1000 LP before this all started, and D/D/D Rebel King Leonidas's effect was activated with Yosenjus' Secret Move chained, Leo is still in your hand and hasn't been Summoned yet, so you couldn't use Errors' rel=" Contract with Errors">Dark Contract with Errors unless you controlled another D/D monster. Nevermind that Yosenjus' Secret Move is a Counter Trap, so you couldn't chain Errors' rel=" Contract with Errors">Dark Contract with Errors anyway. You'd need to do so before all this started, but you didn't have a D/D monster on the field at any point in this scenario, so… yeah…

#####CARDID= 17920#####

Ngabid writes…

Hi again. Ngabid from Indonesia.

What is the difference between "once per turn:" and "you can only use this effect of ... once per turn." Thanks a lot.

Hello Ngabid!

This is a common question, but worth covering since we haven't done so in a while.

"Once per turn:" or anything with the activation condition before the colon, means that restriction applies only for that specific copy of the card while it's face-up on the field. You can use two different Summoner Monk effects per turn (once each), or two different Chaos Sorcerer effects, and so on.

"You can only activate/use the effect of (cardname) one per turn" means that you can only use that effect once for all copies of cards with that name. Even though they're separate cards, the game will only let you use that effect once. The Dragon Rulers used this phrase on each of them, requiring players to keep track of which effects had been used that turn.

Connor Griffith writes…

Hello Judge Joe! I hope you are doing well!

Today I actually have my first question that isn't about specific card rulings. I'm curious about rules regarding foreign language cards.

I'm under the impression that any card in the Main Deck that isn't English will require an English copy (not simply a second copy of the card in the deck that isn't foreign) for translation. How does that pertain to the Extra Deck? Can a player have a German Castel, the Skyblaster Musketeer as well as an English Castel in his Extra Deck and simultaneously use the English one in his Extra Deck as the translation for his German one? ~ Thanks so much for all you do!

Hello Connor!

I actually like this question a lot because it's a not-often discussed point.

If you use a foreign card, you must have a translation for it, either as an English version of the card outside of your deck box, or as a written translation. This includes the Extra Deck as well. Screenshots and text on your phone or other electronic device can't be used for this purpose. Even though you also have an English version in the Extra Deck, you must also have the text available outside of the deck too.

Wilheim Rodrigues writes…

Hello, Joe!

How are you? I'm quite a fan of your Court of Appeals! My question is a straight to the point one:

Can Horn of Heaven negate the Pendulum summon of multiple monsters? In OCG, that's possible. But in TCG, after the errata regarding Black Horn of Heaven, it's been a confusion. Each local judge tells me one different thing. I'd appreciate if you could help me, please.

Best regards, Wilheim Rodrigues, from São Paulo, Brazil.

Hello Wilheim!

Following the current text on Horn of Heaven, you can activate it when "a monster" is Summoned. The lack of the words "exactly 1 monster" as seen on Thunder King Rai-Oh and Black Horn of Heaven tell us that as long as at least one monster is being Summoned, Horn of Heaven can negate the entire Summon.

#####CARDID= 11206#####

Billy Heng writes…

Hello again Judge Joe.

With the rise of Mist Valley Apex Avian, and with it desperately needing a reprint, there's a lot of confusion over what it can negate. So I was wondering if you could clear the smoke on that. Can it negate the activation of the effect of an already face-up Spell/Trap?

Let's say if I activate the effect of an already face-up Sky Iris can it negate that?

Hello Billy!

I'm in agreement that Mist Valley Apex Avian is in dire need of a reprint, both for availability and card text reasons.

Apex Avian can indeed negate the effect of an already face-up Spell or Trap. It can also negate initial activations as well, as that's where most of the confusion with Apex Avian comes from.

Last question! Cody writes…

Thanks so much for all the rulings! It has really changed my game personally. But I have an issue I need help on. I keep getting hit hard by "Time Rulings." My turns probably only take 30 seconds at most. But I keep playing people who probably take three or more minutes each turn. Then the judge will come and put us on the "5 turn" thing and my opponent will always win because they use meta decks and can do fast damage.

How can I prevent this without coming off mean. Can I ask a judge to time a player because I feel he is stalling. I don't mind if people take a long time as long as I get to play the match completely but sadly this isn't the case in Yu-Gi-Oh. Is there a time limit one has each turn? Can I use a stop watch?

Hello Cody!

First thing: weekly local tournaments are Tier 1 events. End of match procedure is three turns, not five. See Yu-Gi-Oh! Tournament Policy for more info.

Slow Play is a common concern among players at all levels of competition. The Penalty Guidelines, which you can access from this page, say that "Players are expected to play at a reasonable speed, regardless of the complexity of the game situation, and should not waste time during a game." As you can see, there's no definitive time limit for how long a turn should take.

Players typically earn Slow Play penalties when they take too long considering what action they should take next. Taking a long turn doesn't necessarily mean that Slow Play is being committed. I can take a five minute turn and not be Slow Playing if I'm playing at a reasonable pace, performing Summons and activating cards and effects in a timely manner. But on the flip side, if I have no cards on the field, no cards in hand and no graveyard plays and I'm down to topdecking, even a pause of 15 seconds could be interpreted as Slow Play. It all comes down to context and it's invariably a judge's call on if something is Slow Play or not.

If you still feel your opponents are Slow Playing during your games, there are a few options you have. Typically, players will respond if you simply say "you gotta make a move." As a player, I usually resort to this first, as it gives your opponent the opportunity to know that their pauses in action are taking longer than they should be. After the second time, I usually call over a judge and let them know that it's been "x" time since the opponent did something. The judge may not give a penalty right away, but they'll likely stick around and watch the action to ensure a proper pace.

If you're a judge, I wrote a Black and White almost three years ago (jeez, where did the time go) about how to spot Slow Play. I suggest giving it a read if you have trouble giving out Slow Play penalties at any level of tournament.

And that's it for this week's Court of Appeals! If you have a question about card interactions, game mechanics or tournament policy, send me an e-mail (one question per e-mail please!) to and your question could be answered in a future Court of Appeals!

Court is adjourned

-Joe Frankino

Joe is a Yu-Gi-Oh! judge and player from Long Island, New York. Joe has never been to Fire Island, so he doesn't actually know how high the High Tide on Fire Island actually is. He suspects that neither Poseidra, the Atlantean Dragon nor Fire King High Avatar Garunix actually live on Fire Island.