What would you say is the most important technique in competitive Yu-Gi-Oh? Is it memorizing every combo sequence? Maintaining card advantage? Reading hand traps and face-down cards?

Those are all important techniques, but the one I have in mind is so universal that it applies to every last strategy you could ever play. It isn't just for combo decks, or decks that win through card advantage or decks that play through defensive cards. In fact, this skill is so universal that it applies to not just every deck in Yu-Gi-Oh, but to every deck in every trading card game that's ever been printed.

Over the course of an average tournament, your ability to apply this technique is tested perhaps more than any other. It's a technique so universal that I use it in sports, video games, and even business. There's no topic in technical play that I refer to more when advising competitive players. In my view, this technique's the single most reliable benchmark to discern skill level.

More than a player's number of premier event accomplishments, more than the rarity of their cards, more than how many years they've played the game, more than the length of their deck profile videos – there's one attribute that I look for that consistently informs me whether a player is "just" competitive or whether they're among the 5 to 10% of individuals in the room who play at an elite level.

"Alright Johnny, you've hyped it up enough. Say it already! What's the most important technique in Yu-Gi-Oh?"

The technique is what's formally known as "assigning your role," though many gamers endearingly refer to it as, "knowing who's the beatdown."

In 1999, Magic: The Gathering legend Mike Flores published the article, "Who's the Beatdown?" That seminal work helped put into words what many players were intuitively realizing about how to control the tempo of a game. Over twenty years later, Mike's work is still regarded as one of the most important articles ever written in trading card game history. I personally think it's #1.

Inevitability Decides Which Deck Wins The Long Game
Consider the following thought experiment. Suppose Ed and David are in a debate over whose deck is the mightiest. Ed says, "My deck's the greatest because it makes unbreakable opening boards. I wipe out my opponents before they have a chance to play! No wonder I always beat you!" David responds, "You only keep winning because your deck steals wins. My deck is greater because I earn victory by matching my opponents blow for blow and coming out on top!"

David then challenges Ed to resolve their dispute by playing an ultimate version of Yu-Gi-Oh with 30,000 Life Points instead of the usual 8,000. To Ed's surprise, he loses, again and again. Every game, Ed makes his powerful opening board, and every game, David eventually breaks the board and grinds out victory. What is Ed failing to realize?

Inevitability is an invisible attribute that describes the hypothetical lasting power of a deck. When two decks face off in a matchup with arbitrarily high Life Point settings and no possibility of deckout, the deck that most often wins has inevitability. In my story, Ed failed to notice that his deck was only good in the short game, while David realized that he could win if he could just survive long enough. David possesses inevitability in the matchup due to his deck's superior endgame.

 

 

Who's The Beatdown?
In Yu-Gi-Oh and many other TCGs, we use labels like "aggro," "combo," and "control" to describe the different styles of decks. For the purpose of assigning roles, there are only two types of decks: control and beatdown. In a given matchup, the control deck has inevitability and is favored by a prolonged game, whereas the beatdown deck lacks inevitability and thus aims to sneak in a quick kill.

Note that the word "control" has an entirely different meaning as a role than its more common use as a style. When a combo deck faces off against a control (style) deck, the combo deck typically is the control (role), and the control (style) deck is the beatdown. For instance, when Wind-Ups face off against Dino Rabbit, the Wind-Up deck (control) is striving to live long enough to draw the cards to perform combos, whereas the Dino Rabbit deck (beatdown) is aiming to deny Wind-Up the permission to play and end the game quickly. Even though Dino Rabbit is a control (style) deck, its role in this matchup is beatdown.

The most extreme example of control can be deduced by thought experiment. If you could draw and pass with your opponent until you've added your entire deck to your hand in a game with arbitrarily high Life Points, which strategy would you choose? The answer is of course Exodia. The Exodia strategy has greater inevitability than any other in Yu-Gi-Oh.

Conversely, the most extreme example of beatdown can be deduced through an inversion of this thought experiment: if you were only allowed one turn to play before your opponent were guaranteed to open their strongest hand full of engine cards against you, which strategy would you choose? The answer here is an FTK, of which there are many in Yu-Gi-Oh.

Extreme examples are useful to make an illustration, but reality is more complex. Which is the beatdown and which is the control between two trap decks like Altergeist and Subterror? Or even trickier: which is the beatdown and which is the control between two similar builds of the same deck?

There are a few shortcuts we can take to judge the correct role with near-perfect accuracy. If a deck has inevitability, tries to increase its advantage rather than decrease the opponent's resources, makes bigger plays per turn, special summons more, or plays fewer defensive cards overall, then it's the control deck. On the other hand, if a deck depends on winning quickly, aims to lower the opponent's resources, makes small plays, special summons less, or plays more defensive cards, then it's the beatdown deck.

One last shortcut you can use to figure out roles is to imagine a version of Yu-Gi-Oh where both players take all the non-engine cards out of their deck and play games where only the engines face off. The deck that wins the majority of those games is the control deck, and the other is the beatdown. In other words, the control deck generally possesses the superior engine.

Misassignment Of Role = Game Loss
I recently faced YCS Pasadena Champion Kobe Short at the final UDS to ever take place in the United States. We were both playing Salamangreat, but he was playing the version that uses Micro Coder to extend his combo options. Micro Coder increases the average number of Special Summons per turn for the Salamangreat strategy, at the cost of giving its pilot less room for defensive cards in the deck. Based on the shortcuts I just named, you can reason that Kobe was the control and I was the beatdown in this matchup.

How did this affect my technical play? One example is that I used Ash Blossom & Joyous Spring earlier rather than later in his turn. As the beatdown player my objective was to win early, before the inherent advantage of his engine could show itself. Therefore the more of his plays I let through, the sooner the game would snowball out of control for me. I had to hope that my negation would force him to end his turn. Trading in a 1-for-1 manner is a common technique that players in the beatdown role depend on to stop control decks. Had I been playing a bigger engine like Shunping Xu's Rokket deck, I would have held a card like Ash Blossom longer against Kobe, instead relying on my own engine to defeat his.

As it turns out, Kobe had the follow-up and took the game through engine advantage. I imagine that if we had played several more matches, he would have won most or all of them. The history of Yu-Gi-Oh has largely seen the dominance of control decks over beatdown decks. That's because engine cards are stronger than trap cards, a topic you can read more about in my series on modern deckbuilding. Knowing which decks are beatdown or control in which matchup in any given season is important to choosing the right deck for a tournament.

Roles extend beyond just the deck matchup. The deck matchup determines who's control and who's beatdown on average, but the game situation on any given turn can completely change which deck is which. In fact, even the die roll that determines which player starts can totally redefine who's control and who's beatdown.

Once again, extreme examples will drive this point home. Suppose I'm playing Rokket and you're playing Chain Burn. I go first and open a full board of big monsters with disruptive effects. The pressure is on you to survive the onslaught of monsters I'll be attacking with. If you can stay alive long enough, you'll eventually draw enough cards to burn me to death. In this scenario I'm the beatdown, and you're the control. I would love to trade a card for a card to cut off your options and close out the game quickly. It's therefore in your best interest to just survive rather than trade with the negation of a card like Borreload Savage Dragon.

Now let's flip the script. You're still playing Chain Burn and I'm still playing Rokket. You go first, and as the turns go on, you dictate the pace of the game. You trade your cards in exchange for burn damage, whittling away at my Life Points. All I can try is to survive enough draw phases to draw into a decent combo. Sitting at 1,000 Life Points, I'm hoping with each passing turn that you don't draw a card to burn my life away so that I can see more combo pieces, whereas you're hoping for the opposite so that you can end the game before I see my combo. This time you're the beatdown and I'm the control.

Roles can switch in a given matchup depending on the situation. When veteran players describe skillful formats, they often refer to ones in which two opponents can often find themselves switching roles multiple times in a single game. These kinds of games make for exciting and skill-intensive Yu-Gi-Oh. Goat Control mirrors from 2005 are a classic example. In those slower formats, counting expended resources in a mirror match is critical to determine who's the beatdown and who's control. All else held equal, if you have more power cards in your grave and mine are still in my deck then I have the inevitability, which means you should be playing aggressively.

Sometimes figuring out your role requires you to take mental inventory of your deck. If your opponent's playing Herald of Perfection, you might switch from beatdown to control if your deck contains even a single Kaiju. If you have that Kaiju, then you could be at liberty to draw and pass all you like. But if you don't have a Kaiju or another out to Herald, then you might need to take mental stock of how many cards in your deck can force a negation, keeping in mind that your opponent can have at most six Fairy monsters in hand to negate with.

If you find that you have insufficient cards to force negations, then you might be better off trading cards early and hoping for the best. If you do have six or more, then you'll want to lull your opponent into a false sense of security and get them into a draw-pass rhythm until the critical turn that you force out all the negation. You'll also want to keep count of cards in deck – perhaps the roles switch entirely if you can force a deckout! Depending on the role you assign yourself you could vomit your entire hand out on the first turn, or do nothing for 20 turns straight.

Skill level also factors into role assignment. In the fall of 2013, Dragon Ruler players often entered gentleman's agreements to mutually side out the card Return from the Different Dimension after the first game. Most players agreed to this because they felt the card was too powerful and added too much chance to the game; players often stole victory simply by drawing the card. However, a number of high-level duelists recognized a competitive motive for offering this agreement: skill level influences role assignment. By taking such an unpredictable luck factor out of the game, better players could ensure that less skilled players would have fewer ways to steal the game from them. Another way to think about it is that "steal the game away" cards favor lower level players, because they are the ones most often in a position where the only way they can win is to steal victory. All else held equal, a more skilled duelist is the control player who wants to have a prolonged game where they have more opportunities to outplay their opponent and punish their mistakes.

Assigning yourself the correct role is crucial to having a long career of tournament success. It's an intangible skill that differentiates the good players from the all-time greats. As Mike Flores said in his 1999 article, misassignment of role = game loss.

Assigning Your Role Outside Of Yu-Gi-Oh
Sometimes the correct role assignment's obvious. Other times, the truth is hidden and requires you to put together very specific pieces of information in order to deduce the answer (like how many Plant monsters are remaining in deck). I've seen entire crowds of people watch an intense tournament match and analyze the game incorrectly afterwards because they misconstrued who held which role. The more you practice consciously noticing who's the beatdown, the more you'll appreciate just how complex Yu-Gi-Oh can be.

Assigning yourself the right role is both impactful yet difficult in the world outside of Yu-Gi-Oh, too. In timed competitions, the control is often the player who wants the clock to run out. In Super Smash Bros. Melee, a highly revered tournament fighter, Jigglypuff's the greatest control character in the game; no character benefits more from the existence of the match timer than she does due to her ability to stall for advantage.

In sports, the control is often the competitor who has more training. In Yu-Gi-Oh you can't "train" your monsters to become stronger; a Berserk Gorilla will always have 2000 ATK – no more, no less. Instead, you simply compare who has the stronger engine. In sports, your "engine" is your mind and body, and you can condition it to grow. If you're more physically conditioned than your opponent, then you're favored in a matchup that forces you to match your "engine" against theirs head on.

I once competed in a parent-child doubles tennis tournament where many of the parents were overweight, but experienced tennis strategists. As a teenager, I knew that I would win if I played the role of control, prolonging each point so as to force my less fit opponents to test their running ability against mine. If I could make the parents run as much as I did, then they'd tire out sooner, giving me the chance to score points. On the other hand, those parents knew that their role was beatdown. If they could make points last as short as possible, then my advantage of endurance wouldn't matter. Sure enough, the parents were excellent at making attempts at winner shots early during a rally, and I had a very difficult time against them.

I read a funny story the other day about a guy who trains seriously as an archer receiving a bet from his untrained friend to have a shooting contest. The friend made the mistake of challenging the archer to 3-round contests instead of one shot, winner takes all, which he could have gotten lucky on. By playing the more drawn-out game, the stronger engine (archer) was favored as the control.

Magicians exercise role assignment when performing. If you're an audience member trying to figure out how a trick is done, the more time you have to study the magician's actions, then the greater the likelihood that you'll solve the trick. Meanwhile magic tricks don't become more confusing the more you investigate them. Therefore, a magician has no incentive to show you as much as possible. The magician therefore uses misdirection as a beatdown to minimize your exposure to the evidence behind his trick as the control.

When engaging in business negotiation, consider which party is the control and which is the beatdown. The person with inevitability is the one who has greater leverage over the other party. The longer the negotiation, the more opportunities that person has to bring up that leverage and extract value from it. If you have more resources, more options, or a more senior position, then it might be to your advantage to prolong negotiations because you have less urgency. However, if you find yourself in the more desperate position relative to your negotiation partner, then it's to your advantage to close out the discussion quickly, before external issues that you can't compete against are raised.

Assigning your role is a universal technique that permeates Yu-Gi-Oh, card games, art, and competition on the whole. Doing it well requires time, patience, and experience; it's the hallmark of excellent play. The ubiquity and difficulty of role assignment makes it the single technique I revere most in Yu-Gi-Oh, and the one I consider most important to competitive play.

-Johnny